[기타] Geology of Oman and The Oman Ophiolite
Oman possess several geological wonders that capture the evolution history of the Arabian Plate and contribute significantly to our understanding of key Earth dynamic processes. Between the Oman Mountains in the north and the Dhofar Mountains in the south, many geological windows and terrains expose a wide range of rock formations and provide astonishing geological landscapes and phenomena that are only present in few places across the globe. These include the Proterozoic glaciation cycles, the Palaeozoic tectonic events and climate history in Gondwana, the Permian–Mesozoic shelf carbonates that contain large oil and gas reserves in the interior, and the classic Semail Ophiolite thrust sheet of Tethyan Ocean crust and mantle, the world’s largest and best-preserved slice of oceanic lithosphere emplaced onto the continental margin. The mountains of Oman are a spectacular and impressive range, unlike any other. The mountains rise to just over 3000 metres and have numerous deeply eroded canyons with perennial flowing streams, tiny date palm villages with terraced fields and intricate falaj irrigation systems, ancient juniper woodlands and spectacular walls of rock. The Oman mountains are, however, geologically famous for having the world’s largest ophiolite complex, a thrust slice of oceanic crust and upper mantle formed 96–95 million years ago, and emplaced onto the Arabian continental margin during the Late Cretaceous between 95 and 70 million years ago. Oman is a geological paradise, not only for petroleum geologists but also for oceanographers, petrologists, structural geologists, geophysists, palaeontologists and marine scientists. The Oman ophiolite played a major role in the geological studies that resulted in the theory of plate tectonics, proposed in the 1960s. Tectonic processes of how plates collide, how narrow slivers of continental crust could have been subducted to great depths (100 km) and then exhumed and how oceanic plates are emplaced onto continental margins have been mainly solved by mapping and studying the rocks of the Oman mountains. The geological heritage is one of the richest anywhere on earth and great efforts are now being made to preserve many unique geological sites. Oman is considered the richest land in meteorites after antarctica. It contains ~ 20% worldwide of meteorite collections.
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